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Jessica regularly counsels businesses on employment policies and practices, including employee handbooks, employment agreements, restrictive covenants, privacy matters, performance management, family and medical leaves, disability accommodations, sexual harassment, wage and hour compliance, independent contractor misclassification and employment separations. She also regularly represents employers before federal and state courts and administrative agencies in matters involving allegations of employment discrimination, wrongful termination, retaliation, breach of contract, workplace torts, and wage and hour violations on an individual and class action basis, as well as non-competes and disputes involving confidential information.

Q: I understand that employers may be required to offer reasonable accommodations to hearing-impaired applicants and employees. When are accommodations required?  What kind of accommodations must employers offer?

A: The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requires employers to provide reasonable accommodation to qualified individuals with disabilities who are employees or applicants for employment. In the context of a job application, an accommodation is considered to be reasonable if it enables an applicant with a disability to have an equal opportunity to apply for and be considered for a job.  In the context of employment, an accommodation is considered to be reasonable if it enables an employee to perform the essential functions of the position.
Continue Reading Accommodations May Be Needed for Hearing-Impaired Job Applicants and Employees

Q: I am a New York employer.  How do the upcoming New York State and New York City sexual harassment requirements affect me?  When is the deadline to comply?

A: New York State and New York City have new sexual harassment policy and training requirements for employers.  The New York State requirements go into effect on October 9, 2018 (policy must be adopted by October 9, 2018 and training must be completed by January 1, 2019).  The New York City requirements (training only) go into effect April 1, 2019.  The New York State requirements apply to all employers, and the New York City requirements apply to employers with 15 or more employees in New York City.
Continue Reading New York Employers Must Comply with New Sexual Harassment Requirements, Beginning October 2018

Q: I am a New York City employer.  What do I need to know about the amendments to the law regarding accommodations?

A: Effective October 15, 2018, employers in New York City will be required to engage in a “cooperative dialogue” with a person who has requested accommodation or who the employer has notice may require an accommodation.  This new requirement stems from an amendment to the New York City Human Rights Law (“NYCHRL”).
Continue Reading New York City Employers will be Subject to a New Accommodation Law Effective October 2018

Q: One of our employees has been exhibiting strange, erratic behavior at work. Can we require the employee to submit to a mental health examination?

A: Possibly. The ADA prohibits employers from requiring their workers to undergo medical exams unless the exam is “shown to be job-related and consistent with business necessity.”  However, an employer may require an employee to undergo a mental health examination if the employee’s behavior raises questions about the employee’s ability to perform essential job-related functions or raises a safety concern.
Continue Reading Employer May Require Employee to Undergo Mental Fitness for Duty Exam if Employee Exhibits Concerning Behavior

Q: A former employee has invited some of her former co-workers and clients to connect on LinkedIn. Is this a violation of her non-solicitation agreement with our company?

A: It depends. In general, a generic invitation to connect will not be viewed as a violation of a non-solicitation agreement.  However, if an invitation is accompanied by a personalized message or other targeted communication, it likely will be viewed as a violation.
Continue Reading LinkedIn Activity May Violate Non-Solicitation Agreements

Q: I heard there is a new parental leave law in California.  How does it compare to other states’ laws and will it affect my business if I have employees in California?

A: Parental leave laws are one of the most complicated aspects of employment law to administer and track.  There are federal, state, and local laws at play, and there is very little uniformity across the laws and across the states.  Even within one state, there may be multiple laws applicable to parental leave, and it can be difficult to navigate the interaction and overlap between the laws.  California’s new parental leave law continues to add to this complexity.
Continue Reading California’s New Parental Leave Law Adds to the Complexities of Administering Leaves of Absence for National Employers

Q: What do I need to know about the recent additions to New York City’s law about the use of criminal history in employment decisions?

A: While the New York City Fair Chance Act (“FCA”) has been in effect since October 2015, the New York City Commission on Human Rights (“Commission”) recently enacted final rules, which clarify many aspects of the law.  The final rules went into effect on August 5, 2017.

The key provision of the FCA prohibits employers from inquiring about an applicant’s criminal history until after a conditional offer of employment has been made. The final rules explain the meaning of a conditional offer, and clarify the steps an employer must take before revoking a conditional offer or taking an adverse employment action.
Continue Reading Important Additions to NYC’s Fair Chance Act Limit Employers’ Ability to Perform Background Checks

Q: What do I need to know about the new New York Paid Family Leave Benefits Law?

A: The New York Paid Family Leave Benefits Law (“NY PFL”) provides employees with paid leave for bonding with a new child, caring for a close relative with a serious health condition, and leave associated with when their spouse, partner, child, or parent is on active military duty or has been notified of an impending call of active duty.
Continue Reading New York Paid Family Leave Benefits Law: Key Provisions and Tips for Preparation

Q: I hire seasonal employees for the summer.  Are there any particular considerations I should be aware of?

A: Seasonal employees can provide much needed support during the summer months.  However, there are certain issues to consider.  First, it is important to clarify upfront that employees are only expected to work for the summer, while at the same time reminding employees that the relationship is at-will and can be ended at any time by either party.
Continue Reading Pitfalls and Best Practices When Hiring for the Summer Season

Q.  I heard there is a new law in New York City that covers retail and fast food establishments. What do I need to know?

A.  Effective November 26, 2017, retail and fast food employers will be subject to strict new laws that govern scheduling. The law is meant to provide retail and fast food employees with more predictability around scheduling by requiring employers to provide schedules a certain amount of time in advance, and prohibiting on-call shifts, among other provisions. Retail employers are simply prohibited from violating the law, while the law provides that fast food employers are required to pay employees premiums of varying amounts for some violations.
Continue Reading NYC Predictable Scheduling Law To Have Wide-Ranging Effects on Retail and Fast Food Employers