Q. Is sexual orientation a protected category under federal discrimination laws?
A. It depends on what Circuit you are located in. On February 26, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (which exercises federal jurisdiction in Connecticut, New York, and Vermont), joined the Seventh Circuit (with jurisdiction over Illinois, Indiana and Wisconsin) in holding that sexual orientation discrimination is prohibited by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Now there are two circuit court decisions ruling that sexual orientation is protected under Title VII. These decisions conflict with at least one decision, of the Eleventh Circuit (with jurisdiction over Alabama, Florida and Georgia).
Many states and some cities and other municipalities have enacted laws that expressly and directly prohibit sexual orientation discrimination. There is, however, no federal law that directly outlaws this type of discrimination. While we continue to wait for Congress to act or the Supreme Court to take up a case for review, employers should consider treating sexual orientation as a protected class when making employment decisions and drafting employment policies.